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  • India for principled approach to climate change
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  • Nine-yr-old girl dies, two kids injured in celebratory firing in Firozabad
  • CM to present annual budget for 2018-19 tomorrow
  • SC stays proceedings in DHC, BHC on sanitary napkins case
  • Disqualifying AAP MLAs miscarriage of natural justice: Sinha
  • 32 people died of swine flu in J&K in 2017: Govt
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  • Veeam Appoints Sandeep Bhambure as India Business Lead
  • Federer eases past Fucsovics into Melbourne quarter-finals
  • Bomb at pork stall in market in Thailand's south kills 3, wounds 22
  • SC to hear pleas of Raj, MP on Padmaavat on Tuesday
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Variety of organisms including different bacteria, fungi or viruses, can cause meningitis.

Variety of organisms including different bacteria, fungi or viruses, can cause meningitis.

Kolkata, Dec 9 (UNI) A variety of organisms including different bacteria, fungi or viruses, can cause meningitis.

Meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial form of meningitis, is a serious infection of the meninges that affects the brain membrane. It can cause severe brain damage and is fatal in 50 per cent of cases if untreated.

Meningococcal meningitis, caused by Neisseria meningitidis bacteria, is of particular importance due to its potential to cause large epidemics. Twelve types of N. meningitides, called serogroups, have been identified, six of which (A, B, C, W, X and Y) can cause epidemics.

Meningococcal meningitis is observed in a range of situations, from sporadic cases, small clusters, to huge epidemics throughout the world, with seasonal variations. The disease can affect anyone of any age, but mainly affects babies, preschool children and young people.

The geographic distribution and epidemic potential differ according to the serogroup. There are no reliable estimates of global meningococcal disease burden due to inadequate surveillance in several parts of the world.

During the dry season between December to June, dust winds, cold nights and upper respiratory tract infections combine to damage the nasopharyngeal mucosa, increasing the risk of meningococcal disease. At the same time, transmission of N. meningitidis may be facilitated by overcrowded housing.

This combination of factors explains the large epidemics which occur during the dry season in the meningitis belt.

Neisseria meningitidis only infects humans; there is no animal reservoir. The bacteria are transmitted from person-to-person through droplets of respiratory or throat secretions from carriers. Smoking, close and prolonged contact – such as kissing, sneezing or coughing on someone, or living in close quarters with a carrier – facilitates the spread of the disease. Transmission of N. meningitidis is facilitated during mass gatherings (recent examples include the Haj pilgrimage, and jamborees).

The bacteria can be carried in the throat and sometimes overwhelms the body's defences allowing the bacteria to spread through the bloodstream to the brain. It is believed that 1 to 10 per cent of the population carries N. meningitidis in their throat at any given time. However, the carriage rate may be higher (10 to 25 per cent) in epidemic situations.

The average incubation period is four days, but can range between two and 10 days. The most common symptoms are a stiff neck, high fever, sensitivity to light, confusion,

headaches and vomiting.

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Middle East respiratory syndrome, a viral respiratory disease

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19 Jan 2018 | 1:30 PM

Kolkata, Jan 19 (UNI) Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease
caused by a novel coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or MERSā€CoV)
that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

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Science has to be people centric: Dr Harsh Vardhan

18 Jan 2018 | 1:08 PM

Hyderabad, Jan 18 (UNI) Union Minister for Science and Technology Harsh Vardhan has said that the Science has to be people centric and its benefits would deliver to the people.

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Greater efforts needed to meet international family planning goals

Greater efforts needed to meet international family planning goals

17 Jan 2018 | 12:32 PM

Kolkata, Jan 17 (UNI) Women and girls have a human right to choose whether and when to become pregnant.

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TN pioneer in organ transplants, other states should follow it : Venkaiah

TN pioneer in organ transplants, other states should follow it : Venkaiah

16 Jan 2018 | 5:13 PM

Chennai, Jan 16 (UNI) Observing that Tamil Nadu was a pioneering state in organ transplantation in the country, Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu on Tuesday said other states should emulate it in providing affording medical care to the people.

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Echinococcosis, a parasitic disease that occurs in two main forms in humans

Echinococcosis, a parasitic disease that occurs in two main forms in humans

13 Jan 2018 | 12:16 PM

Kolkata, Jan 13 (UNI) Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease that occurs in two main forms in humans: cystic echinococcosis (also known as hydatidosis) and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively.

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